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Composition of Proteins

 

 Proteins are known as life's basic building block because they are the most readily available molecules found in the body and constitute about 60% of cells' dry weight. These are the cells present most in all living species. Besides cells, many enzymes, regulatory and structural parts of the body are composed of proteins. As a consequence, proteins are necessary for an individual's growth and development.

The protein polymers include a large number of monomer components. Protein polymer consists of identical or different monomers. The polymerization takes place by adding additional monomers to an actual oligomer or polymeric protein. Food such as eggs, pulses, milk and other dairy products form the main high proteins foods for the human body.

Protein structure

In general, they are two kinds of protein molecules: fibrous proteins & globular proteins. Fibrous proteins are elongated and insoluble. Globular proteins are small and soluble. Fibrous and globular proteins can include one or four types of protein structures, including primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures.

     Primary structure - It is a specific amino acid sequence. Information contained in genes detects the sequence of amino acids which are bound together.

     Secondary Structure - It is a tridimensional shape of a local protein fragment. They are produced along the backbone of the polypeptide chain by hydrogen bonds between the atoms.

     Tertiary Structure - R-groups determines these proteins; it is a three-dimensional form. Many tertiary structure numbers fold in to form Quaternary Structure.

     Quaternary structure - n a multi-subunit complex, it is the arrangement of several folded protein subunits.

Protein synthesis

     Synthesis of proteins occurs through the process known as translation.

     The process takes place in the cytoplasm. Rendering of genetic codes is involved in the process.  

     Cell ribosomes help in translating genetic codes into a chain of polypeptides.

     These polypeptide chains only become working proteins after certain modifications have occurred.

Compositions of proteins

Proteins consist of covalently bonded carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and the existence of sulphur is also found in some proteins. The basic building blocks are the 20 amino acids that differ in the length of the backbones of their carbon chain and the atoms attached to that backbone.

Every amino acid contains a group of carboxyls, amine, hydrogen and group-R. The covalent bonds are created to form proteins between different amino acids and are termed as peptide bonds. Proteins function in our body in a variety of significant ways and many are structural proteins.

Functions of protein

Proteins perform many roles inside the body, and their structure gives them their flexibility. Such influential roles include:-

     Digestion is done by the digestive enzymes that are primarily proteinaceous.

     Myosin is a protein contained in the muscles that cause the muscles to contract, enabling movement.

     Keratin is the structural protein that makes our animals hair, nails and horns.

     Cells interact with other cells and the outside environment via receptors that are present on the cell surface. Proteins are made of these receptors.

     These proteins are the chemical messengers that help to communicate between the cells, tissues, and organs.

 

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