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RO System: The Industry Standard in Water Purification




Reverse osmosis(RO) system eliminates a very high percentage of impurities, bacteria and microorganisms present in the water. This method allows us to drink and out to use pure, clear and high quality water. The filter and membrane system manages to eliminate the high quantities of heavy metals and mineral salts, mainly lead, sodium and nitrates that are damaging to health. Reverse osmosis filters, the dissolved particles in the water and improves the composition.

Osmosis is the movement of molecules through a partially semi-permeable membrane, which travels from a region of higher concentration to another of lesser, in this action the membrane tends to equalize the concentrations on both sides. This flow of solvent particles into the area of ​​lower potential is known as osmotic pressure and is measurable in terms of atmospheric pressure .

In the RO system, when a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure is used, an effect contrary to osmosis is observed by pressing fluids through the semipermeable membrane and only the lower weight molecules pass from the other side. In the treatment of solids, dissolved in water, pressure is generated and retained in the membrane and only water is allowed to pass, this is called reverse osmosis. To achieve this effect of the passage of water it is necessary to pressurize the water to a higher value than the osmotic pressure.

The equipment, consists of:
- Pressure source
- Conditioner pretreatment
- Containers and reverse osmosis membranes
- Regeneration system
- Instrumentation
- Protection, command and control pane
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The main components include
- Dosing pumps for the addition of chemical products with a low level sensor.
- Prefiltration to 5 microns.
- TFC type spiral-wound osmosis membranes.
- Multistage high pressure pumps.
- Stainless steel flow regulating valves.
- Flow meters and conductivity.
- Pressure control in membrane and treated water.
- Automatic cleaning system and flushing with storage tank.
- Control panel with synoptic, commanded by programmable automation.

Reverse osmosis membranes have the characteristics of continuous cleaning while its working, as they would suffer an accumulation of contaminants and a saturation in a short time. The continuous process helps the incoming flow of water to seperate the contaminants leaving behind the essential salts and minerals. This is known as reject water, which is commonly 40% water product and 60% reject water, in equipment with water of relatively good quality, it can be 50% / 50% or in water with total dissolved solids ( TDS) low to 60% / 40%.

A reverse osmosis system, a properly designed equipment works efficiently for a duration of 3 to 5 years. It is important to take care of regular maintenance with chemicals for membrane cleaning and follow  the manufacturer's guide. In waters with high concentrations of dissolved solids, with hardness or the presence of silica, it is advisable to dose an antiscalant by means of a pump. It is also important to do a pre-treatment that incorporates the equipment: elimination of particles in suspension by means of sediment cartridges or bedding equipment deep and activated carbon equipment and softeners, if required. In membranes of domestic use, the life span is shorter ranging from 2 to 3 years, because it is not possible to perform the
aforementioned maintenance.


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